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Nerve Cells

The Amazing Neuron


Animated Neuron


Neurons come in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending upon their function and specialized structures. However, in general, all neurons work in the same manner and resemble each other. And, in addition, our neurons look almost exactly like the neurons of a dolphin, a cat, or a squirrel!

What do you notice about the image above?

The red "nerve impulse" is moving in one direction through the cell, from the left to the right. The left end of the neuron is made of special extensions called "dendrites", which receive information and bring electrochemical signals to the cell body (or "soma"); the right end of the neuron is a special extension called the "axon", which sends information away from the cell body. Neurons communicate with each other by electrochemical signals travelling from the axon terminal of one cell to the dendrite of the next... and on... and on... The actual linking sites where nerve cells communicate are called "synapses", and neuronal communication of information is called "synaptic transmission".

Labeled Neuron


Would you like to learn fun facts about the neuron, look at magnified pictures of neurons, or learn about the neuron and intelligence?


Click here to learn fun facts about the neuron               Click here to magnify pictures of neurons               Click here to learn about neurons and intelligence


James E. W. Walsh's picture

neurons, synapses, neurotransmitters, antagonistic substances

requesting more recent studies, slides on human neurons in CNS & PNS. Diseases such as Parkinsons, Azheimers, Muscular dystrophy, Schizophrenia related to antagonistic drugs and chemical substances that cause brain cell destruction substantia nigra, cerebral cortex,cerebellum, limbic system - respectively.

More description of neurons in CNS and PNS.

My ulnar nerve in my left hand was damaged by a water soluble nerve agent and gradually recovered with time, rest and 100mg/day Vitamin B1. My Golden Retriever's nerve (?name) running down his chest, neck from his eyes was damaged by use of a collar instead of a harness, producing Horner's Syndrome. AKC Jupiter Star's nerve became gradually restored and he no longer has Horner's syndrome. My point is that some nerves in PNS can be repaired by nature. What about human brain cells - can they be made to grow back by natural processes?

I am a USA citizen, now retired but working.

Interestingly, human neuron diameters range from 4 to 200 microns, size of small bacteria /viruses to red blood cells.

Can your web cite publish description of circulation of biochemicals, oxygen across blood/brain barrier into interior regions of human brain. What exactly is the blood/brain barrier? What exactly is the biochemical makeup of the neocortex?

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