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Shoshana's Mini Project: A.D.H.D.

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What is A.D.H.D.?

• A.D.H.D.. is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination
• A.D.H.D. is a long-term, chronic condition.

Types of A.D.H.D.

• There are 3 types of A.D.H.D.
1) Inattentive Type
• Those with the Inattentive type are less disruptive and are easier to miss being diagnosed with A.D.H.D.
2) Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
3) Combined Type

Effects of A.D.H.D.

• A.D.H.D. affects school performance and interpersonal relationships.
• About half of the children with A.D.H.D. will continue to have troublesome symptoms of inattention or impulsivity as adults. However, adults are often more capable of controlling behavior and masking difficulties.
• Many adults with A.D.H.D. are in successful jobs. Possible complications, if A.D.H.D. is not adequately treated, could include failure in school or other similar problems.

Symptoms: Inattentive Type

• Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork
• Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play
• Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
• Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace
• Difficulty organizing tasks and activities
• Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork)
• Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities
• Easily distracted
• Often forgetful in daily activities

Symptoms: Hyperactive-Impulsive

Hyperactivity symptoms:
• Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
• Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
• Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations
• Difficulty playing quietly
• Often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor," talks excessively

Impulsivity symptoms:
• Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
• Difficulty awaiting turn
Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games)

Symptoms: Combined Type

Symptoms include a combination of Inattentive type symptoms and Hyperactive-Impulsive type symptoms.

Causes of A.D.H.D

• A.D.H.D. is often genetic. Whatever the specific cause may be, it seems to be set in motion early in life as the brain is developing.
• Neuroimaging studies suggest that the brains of children with A.D.H.D. are different from those of other children. These children handle neurotransmitters (including dopamine, serotonin, and adrenalin) differently from their peers.

Diagnosis of A.D.H.D.

• The child should have a clinical evaluation if A.D.H.D. is suspected.
• Evaluation may include:
– Parent and teacher questionnaires (Connors, Burks)
– Psychological evaluation of the child AND family including IQ testing and psychological testing
Complete developmental, mental, nutritional, physical, and psychosocial examination
• To be diagnosed with A.D.H.D., children should have at least 6 attention symptoms or 6 activity and impulsivity symptoms -- to a degree beyond what would be expected for children their age.
– Depression, sleep deprivation, learning disabilities, tic disorders, and behavior problems may be confused with, or appear along with, A.D.H.D.
• The symptoms must be present for at least 6 months, observable in 2 or more settings, and not caused by another problem. The symptoms must be severe enough to cause significant difficulties. Some symptoms must be present before age 7.
• Older children have A.D.H.D. in partial remission when they still have symptoms but no longer meet the full definition of the disorder.

Treatment of A.D.H.D.

• Children who receive both behavioral treatment and medication often do the best.
– Medications should not be used just to make life easier for the parents or the school. There are now several different classes of A.D.H.D. medications that may be used alone or in combination.
• Set specific, appropriate target goals to guide therapy. Limit distractions in the child's environment.
• Provide one-on-one instruction with the teacher.
• Make sure the child gets enough sleep.
• Make sure the child gets a healthy, varied diet, with plenty of fiber and basic nutrients.
• Medication and behavior therapy should be started.
• Systematic follow-up is important to regularly reassess target goals, results, and any side effects of medications. Information should be gathered from parents, teachers, and the child.


• This summer class has provided the tools to address students with A.D.H.D.
• Everyone learns in different ways. A teacher should remember this in the classroom to better understand the student.
• A teacher should encourage the student and give positive reinforcement to the student.
• A teacher should know which students are diagnosed with A.D.H.D., and make the proper accommodations.
– Example: if a Hyperactive-Impulsive type student is having trouble staying seated, the teacher can allow the student to remain standing.