This paper reflects the research and thoughts of a student at the time the paper was written for a course at Bryn Mawr College. Like other materials on Serendip, it is not intended to be "authoritative" but rather to help others further develop their own explorations. Web links were active as of the time the paper was posted but are not updated.

Contribute Thoughts | Search Serendip for Other Papers | Serendip Home Page

Women, Sport,
and Film - 2003


On Serendip

Is Title IX a social justice

Anna W.

Women, Sports, and Film
Essay Question: Why is Title IX a social justice issue? What effect does it have on women's lives who are not athletes?

Taken directly from Title IX, it states "no person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal aid".

Remember back to a time in the United States prior to the Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972, when sex discrimination regarding Education was tolerated and legal. Our society at the time had very low percentages of girls participating in sports, women entering medical and law schools, in addition to numerous other academic areas where men dominated. Time and society have changed and so has the law. In 1972, the United States government enacted Title IX, an education amendment, which "bars sex discrimination in any educational program or activity that receives federal funding, including athletics. The law gave women access to classes, facilities, and opportunities that had historically been male only."(internet source, Since then, girls and women have had their lives improve by having more opportunities made available, thus making Title IX a social justice for it served to end injustice based on sex discrimination. Women athletes did stand to benefit the most from this law, but the lives of all women changed, both those athletes and non athletes.

Social Justice is defined as "on going awareness of injustice as it occurs (status, power, access), process of action-move from talk to action; inclusive of all people to talk about social justice on all different levels, process of commitment-individual commits to change and affects another- to affect the system, and most importantly, it is a process of transforming a system inclined to perpetual injustice" (internet source, Going by the criteria set in defining social justice, Title IX qualifies to be classified as a social justice. First, Title IX came about because citizens recognized the injustice associated with sex discrimination regarding federally funded educational programs and activities. Secondly, once the injustice was recognized, actions were taken to rectify the problem. Lastly, Title IX took the initiative that sought to 'transform a system' crippled by injustice, thus ending a system that prior to this law, perpetuated injustice.

It should be noted that student athletes did gained the most from Title IX. Although, it should also be mentioned that Title IX altered the lives of all girls and women for the better because of the additional opportunities that it brought to them. Prior to Title IX, many schools discriminated against girls and women, and restricted and limited the acceptance rate of this group into their institutions. Because of Title IX, there has been an increase in the participation of women in areas that before 1972 were mainly dominated by men.

In 994, women received 38% of medical degrees, compared with 9% in 1972, In 1994, women earned 43% of law degrees, compared with 7% in 1972. In 1994, 44% of all doctoral degrees to U.S. citizens went to women, up from 25% in 1977. (internet source,

The significance, effects, and social benefits of Title IX had been felt since its enactment and will continue to be felt way into the future.

| Forums | Serendip Home |

Send us your comments at Serendip

© by Serendip 1994-2002 - Last Modified: Wednesday, 02-May-2018 10:51:19 CDT