from Civilization and its Discontents (commentary;) main theme of book irremediable antagonism between demands of the instinct and restrictions of civilization organic repression paves way for civilization super-ego originated in earliest object-relations guilt most imp't problem in development of civilization destructive instinct, reluctance to accept aggressive impulse independent of libido assisted by narcissism: self-preservation I. friend responded to "future of an illusion" w/ description of oceanic feeling— cannot discover in self, not easy to deal scientifically w/ feeling of indissoluble bond attempt to discover genetic explanation: we are certain of self our self/ego: autonomous, unitary, marked off distinctly from everything else deception: ego continues inwards w/out sharp delimitation into unconscious id, for which it serves as facade boundary (clear, sharp lines) between ego object threatens to melt away in love subject to disturbances, boundaries not constant infant gradually prompted to distinguish his ego from external world: set over against him as object, existing outside, forced to appear by special action learn a procedure to differentiate between internal, external: introduction of the reality principle present ego shrunken residue of much more inclusive feeling of world in mind, primitive preserved alongside transformed version in mental life; nothing formed can perish, everything preserved (as past preserved in historical sites like Rome) can't master characteristics of mental life by pictorial representation: city development requires demolitions, replacement of bldgs, not cf. to mental organism more closely related cf: body earlier phases of development supply material, are absorbed into later trace oceanic feeling back to early phase of ego-feeling (not a compelling source of religious needs: derived from infant's helplessness and longing for father's protection, permanently sustained by fear of fate) oceanic feeling restoration of limitless narcissism oneness w/ universe first attempt @ religious consolation, disclaiming danger threatening from external world through Yoga, can regress to primordial states/mysticism II. common man understand religion as completely explaining riddles of the world, assuring him of careful Providence (exalted father) watching over his life, compensating him in future for frustration here patently infantile, foreign to reality, not tenable, pitiful rearguard actions life is too hard for us; we need palliative measures: deflections, substitutive satisfactions (=science, art) and intoxicants religious system gives life a purpose demand happiness, aim for experience of strong feelings o fpleasure programme of pleasure principle decides the purpose of life @ loggerheads w/ all the regulations of the universe plan of creation does not intend man to be happy comes from sudden satisfaction of dammed up needs, by nature only episodic prolonged into contentment intense enjoyment only from contrast unhappiness less difficult to experience; threatened w/ suffering from body, world and relations to others men moderate claims to happiness, avoid suffering readiest safeguard is voluntary isolation, keep self aloof: happiness of quietness; turn away from/defend self from world ( or use science to attack nature, subject her to human will) most interesting methods: influence own organism: feeling sensation crudest, most effective influence in chemicals--refuge in world of one’s own master internal needs, kill off instincts unsatisfaction not so painful in quietness: diminution in potentialities of enjoyment attraction of forbidden economic explanation gain most by heightening yield of pleasure from psychical/intellectual work intention of making self independent of external world, seeking satisfaction in internal psychical processes satisfaction from illusions in life of imagination mild narcosis of art: transient withdrawal from pressure of vital needs try to re-create world, in conformity w/ one's own wishes delusional remolding of reality: religion as mass-delusion another method for gaining happiness: makes love the centre weak side of this technique: never so defenseless against suffering aesthetic attitude: enjoy beauty--little protection against threats, but great compensation (derived from sexual feeling) programme of becoming happy cannot be fulfilled question of how much real satisfaction from external world (erotic: in relations w/ others) how far make self independent of it (narcissistic: in self) how much strength for altering it to suit his wishes (man of action) don't look for whole in any single aspiration religion restricts this play of choice and adaptation, imposing equally on everyone its own path to acquisition of happiness/ protection form suffering: depressing the value of life, intimidates intelligence religion can't keep its promise: last possible consolation, source of pleasure is unconditional submission