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Figure Captions 1. René Descartes (1596-1650) 2. The mechanism for automatic reaction in response to external events, illustrated in Descartes' De homine (1662). 3. Descartes' Les passions de l'ame (1649) was his most important contribution to psychology proper. 4. Malebranche's Treatise Concerning The Search after Truth contained the classic statement of the occasionalist view that mind and body are both causally ineffective. 5. Benedictus de Spinoza [Baruch Spinoza] (1632-1677) 6. Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) 7. L'homme machine appeared in three French editions of 1748: the "W' edition of 108 pages, which is exceptionally rare (perhaps burned); the standard "X" edition of 109 pages, with errors of the "W" edition corrected; and a "Y' edition, possibly pirated, of 148 pages. 8. Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (1757-1808) 9. In The Theory of Practice , Hodgson offered the first modern articulation of the view that mind is an epiphenomenon. 10. William Benjamin Carpenter (1813-1885) 11. "Mind-Stuff" compounding, as illustrated by William James in his Principles of Psychology (1890). 12. Morton Prince (1854-1929). Courtesy of Robert H. Wozniak. 13. Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828) 14. In the Recherches expérimentales, Flourens reported the first experimental localization of function in the brain. 15. Alexander Bain (1818-1903) 16. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) 17. A cephalograph designed by Herbert Spencer to achieve more reliable phrenological measurement of the cranium, from Spencer's An Autobiography (1904). 18. Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) 19. John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) 20. David Ferrier (1843-1928) 21. Localization of function in the dog, from Ferrier's The Functions of the Brain (1876). 22. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) 23. In Mesmer's (1779) view, cure was effected through "magnetic passes" of the physician's hands. Courtesy of Robert H. Wozniak. 24. Puységur and the "magnetized" elm of Buzancy. The patient seen falling into a state of somnambulistic sleep as he leans on the Marquis is Victor Race. From the third edition (1820) of Puységur's Mémoires ... du magnétisme animal. 25. To distinguish his views from those of mesmerism, Braid employed a new vocabulary to refer to phenomena of nervous sleep, from Braid's Neurypnology (1843). 26. Charcot demonstrating a case of hysteria. The patient is believed to be Blanche Wittmann ("Wit"). 27. Pierre-Marie-Félix Janet (1859-1947). Courtesy of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. 28. John Locke (1632-1704) 29. In his New Theory (1709), Berkeley proposed a mechanism for the perception of distance that became a prototype for later associationist accounts. 30. The principle of association was first employed as the fundamental explanatory device by Hartley in his Observations on Man. 31. Condillac's Traité des sensations was designed to show that external sense impressions can account for all ideas and mental operations. 32. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 33. Charles Bell (1774-1842) 34. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). Courtesy of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. 35. In that portion of the De pulsu devoted to touch, Weber presented an extensive experimental exploration of the sensory phenomenology of tactile experience. 36. Johannes Mčller (1801-1858) 37. Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). Courtesy of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. 38. Publication of Fechner's Elemente der Psychophysik is generally considered to mark the formal beginning of experimental psychology. 39. Wilhelm Max Wundt (1832-1920) 40. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894) 41. Franciscus Cornelis Donders (1818-1889) 42. Wilhelm Wundt, surrounded by students and colleagues at Leipzig, site of the first experimental laboratory devoted to psychological research. 43. Samuel Johnson (1696-1772) 44. Rush's tranquilizing chair, the most thorough method of patient restraint ever devised. 45. Joseph Parrish (1779-1840) 46. Catherine Esther Beecher (1800-1878). Courtesy of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 47. Amariah Brigham (1798-1849) 48. Noah Porter (1811-1892) 49. Electrogalvanic shock was one among a large number of therapeutic treatments for neurasthenia recommended by Beard. This illustration is from the fifth edition of his Practical Treatise on Nervous Exhaustion (1905). 50. William James (1842-1910) 51. James's Principles is still quite possibly the greatest work that psychology has yet produced. Despite the fact that James's magnum opus was eagerly anticipated, the first issue was small and has become exceptionally rare. It can be identified by the fact that the word "Psychology" in "Principles of Psychology" on the series page is hyphenated and split between two lines. 52. For much of his life, William James was involved in the exploration of psychical phenomena. Here he is shown at a séance. By permission of the Houghton Library, Harvard University. Footnote 1. The extent to which early research on functional nervous disorders drew from work with female patients, the effect of the power differential between male physicians and female patients, the frankly sexual nature of performances by female "hysterics" in front of all male audiences of physicians and medical students [see figure 26], and the nature of these and other similar phenomena in relation to the place of women in society is an important historical topic in its own right (see, for example, Showalter, 1985).

 

Citation:
Wozniak, Robert H. "Mind and Body: Rene Déscartes to William James"
http://serendipstudio.org/Mind/;
Bryn Mawr College, Serendip 1995
Originally published in 1992 at Bethesda, MD & Washington, DC by the National Library of Medicine and the American Psychological Association.



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