## Heart Rate and Its Variation

Name:  Maggie
Subject:
Date:  2002-10-22 14:50:39
Message Id:  3315
Katie Campbell, Steph Lane, Kate Amlin, Margaret Hoyt, Kyla Ellis

Experiment 1

Initials Base Line Rate Exercise Rate

KC 54 78
SL 72 110
KA 70 128
MH 74 118
KE 68 122

Experiment 2

Hypothesis:
We hypothesized that if a person would hold their breath, their resting heart rate would be lower than when breathing normally.

Data:
We used MH as our lab rat, particularly because she had a really strong beat. We recorded her resting heart rate while breathing normally 3 times before we recorded the heart rate while she held her breath. We then did another trial where MH breathed normally just to make sure her heart rate hadn't dropped while breathing normally.

trial 1 (breathing normally)
94
86
84

trial 2 (holding breath)
64
68
64

trial 3 (breating normally)
92
93
90

Conclusions:
Because MH's heart rate dropped while she held her breath, the obvious conclusion is that breathing makes the heart beat faster. Therefore, the process of respiration requires oxygen and a faster heart beat.

Name:  Amanda, Diana
Subject:  HR lab
Date:  2002-10-22 14:58:03
Message Id:  3316
We chose to examine emotional state and how it affects heart rate. We thought of something exciting, and something calming, then as a side experiment we smoked a cigarette and observed how that affected our heart rate. Mande: Resting HR: 66bpm Excited thought: 66bpm, 68bpm, 68bpm Calming thought: 64bpm, 62bpm, 66 bpm Cigarette: the reading was too low to distinguish peaks Diana: Resting HR:88bpm Excited thought: 96,84,88 Calming thought: 94, 86,87 Cigarette: The reading was too low to distiguish peaks We found that altering our thoughts had little to no effect on our HR. This may be due to outside distractions making a fully calmed or excited state difficult to attain. The cigarette seemed to greatly lower our the height of the peaks, yet it may be due to ineffective use of the equipment.
Name:
Subject:  Heart Rates
Date:  2002-10-22 14:58:57
Message Id:  3317
Brenda Zera Elizabeth Damore

We ran a couple of trials to test the effects of different influences on heart rates. First, we experimented with the effect of laughter on heart rate. We found that the heart rate didn't vary overall, but it spiked when the subject laughed. This may be due to the motion caused by laughing. Next, we experimented with the effect of raising an arm over the head on heart rate. The heart rate quickened slightly, along with an increase in pressure. However, the heart rate was not significantly affected by either of these changes.

Name:
Subject:  Sarah Tan is a rock
Date:  2002-10-22 14:59:01
Message Id:  3318
Heart Rate-
Sarah Tan 82 beats per min.
Heather Price 76 beats per min.
M.R. 84 beats per min.

After exercise
Sarah 136 beats per min.
Heather 152 beats per min.
Margot 146 beats per min.

Sarah after being "scared"- There was no effect on her heart rate after Grobstein screamed. Her heart rate stayed the same.

Heather held her breath for thirty seconds. Her heart rate increased to 96 beats per min. but the pressure decreased.

Margot thought sad thoughts for thirty seconds. We showed her a sad picture, thus making her heart rate slow down to 80 beats per min.

Our story about heart rates is that they increase or decrease depending upon both physical and emotional stimuli.

Name:  Kathryn, Sarah
Subject:  Heart Rate
Date:  2002-10-22 15:00:46
Message Id:  3319
..............................Kathryn.....Sarah
Base Line......................86..........70
Exercise.......................136.........100
Emotional Thoughts.............88..........86
Thinking of lowering hr........92..........74
Holding Breath.................84..........90

Any sort of heightened stimulation requires a higher heart (more oxygen) because internal functions are in a more active state- for example, there is more going on in your brain, you blush, you sweat, stomach gets tight, you laugh....etc. By the same logic, a relaxed state , or a conserted effort to lower the heart rate, should have been sucessful in slowing the functions. However, the conditions of the experiment were less than ideal, random, noise, movements and other exterior stimulants and distractions most likely played a role in theresults nd the abiity to concertrae on specific emotional or mental states.

Name:  Yarimee
Subject:  Heart rate
Date:  2002-10-22 15:20:20
Message Id:  3320
Virginia Culler
Joanna Robertson
Jennifer Rusk
Yarimee Gutierrez

Base Rate:
Virginia-> 94
Yarimee -> 82
Jen -> 70
Joanna -> 80

After 2 min of rigorous exercise
V-> 102
Y-> 150
Je->96
Jo->96

Hypothesis:
-Increases with exercise because of the need for more oxygen.
-Increases due to need to rid body of carbon dioxide.

Holding Breath
Virginia -> 144
Jen -> 64

Emotions
Joanna-> when told to imagine a happy scenario heart beat increased
Virginia-> when told to imagine a frightening senario heart rate increased a very small amount.

Food for thought:
-Maybe caffein and nicotine affect heart rate?
-relaive body health affects heart rate? (prior Knowledge)

Name:
Subject:  Heart rate measurements
Date:  2002-10-23 14:44:46
Message Id:  3325
Roma Hassan, Melissa Brown and Adrienne Wardy

Hypothesis: A person's heart rate varies from its base rate due to activity (eg. exercise), emotion (eg. fear) etc.

Observations: A converter and a computer program called SuperScopeII was used to measure the heart rates at different stages for 30 seconds of three human subjects and then the different measurements were recorded.

AVG. RESTING HEART RATES:
Roma: 92 beats/min
Melissa: 83 beats/min

HEART RATES AFTER VIGOROUS EXERCISE:
Roma: 154 beats/min
Melissa: 156 beats/min

HEART RATES AFTER A PARTICULAR EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE:
Roma (after Melissa pinched her hand HARD!!): 111 beats/min
Melissa (after thinking happy thoughts of going home): 96 beats/min
Adrienne (after practising yoga breathing): 87 beats/min
Melissa (after holding her breath): 105 beats/min
Roma (after letting her head hang upside down): 87 beats/min

Conclusion: A person's heart rate does indeed vary from its resting stage with changes in physical activity or emotional state of mind. As physical activity is increased more oxygen is required, hence the heart rate increases to allow for that. As for emotional state, depending on a particular emotion a person's heart rate may increase or decrease from normal. Yoga breathing and letting one's head hang upside down causing the blood to rush to it decreases heart rate while holding one's breath increases it. For further research one can look into changes in heart rate after consumption on different levels of nicotine, caffeine, alcohol etc. That should provide an interesting perspective on the effects of different chemicals in the blood system on a person's heart rate.

Name:  Bobbi, Rosie, Catherine, Annie
Subject:  Heart Rate Lab
Date:  2002-10-23 15:10:29
Message Id:  3327
Basically, we took heart rates for each person in the group, under different circumstances. We came up with this data:

Resting Heart Rate

Bobbi: 66 / min.
Rosie: 70 / min.
Catherine: 88 / min.
Annie: 88 / min.

"Vigorous" Exercise Heart Rate

Rosie: 116 / min. Catherine: 142 / min.

"Irritation" Heart Rate

Catherine: 98 / min.

Relaxation Heart Rate

Rosie: 65 / min.

Hypothesis: Anxiety raises heart rate, while relaxation lowers it.
Our resting heart rates were taken first; the variations in our data show that there are different conditions which affect heart rate, so we decided to test one variation per person in the group.
Our data shows that heart rate is affected by mental state; it increases with irritation/anxiety, and lowers with more relaxed state. Our systems are obviously all interconnected, and change in one area causes changes in others.
The hypothesis was correct in this experiment.
Name:
Subject:  Heart Rate
Date:  2002-10-23 15:11:18
Message Id:  3328

The Scientists: Emily S., Maggie S.-W., Chelsea R., and Laura B.

Observations:

#### Heart Rate (in beats per minute)

 Resting Heart Rate After 2 mins. Vigorous Exercise While Holding Breath (Trial 1) While Holding Breath (Trial 2) Laura 82 156 88 90 Emily 78 126 96 84 Chelsea 98 106 104 90 Maggie 86 140 74 72

Hypothesis: We all agreed that we thought our heart rates would increase after exercising. When coming up with a hypothesis for what would happen to our heart rate when we held our breath, however, some of us thought that heart rate would increase and some of us thought that heart rate would decrease.

Putting it all together: According to the observations made by the class, our hypothesis that heart rate would increase after exercise appears to be true. However, we could not really conclude anything based on our observations of heart rate while holding one's breath. We measured our heart rate while holding our breath for 30 seconds, and some of our heart rates increased and the others decreased, so we cannot really conclude anything. Those of us who thought that heart rate would decrease while holding our breath, thought that because we thought that heart rate was dependent on oxygen intake and when you stop taking in oxygen (i.e.: hold your breath) your heart rate should decrease. Those of us who thought that heart rate would increase thought that because we thought that the heart would pump faster because the heart would try to get all the remaining oxygen in the lungs distributed to the body in an attempt to start the breathing process again.

Name:
Subject:  Heart Rate Lab
Date:  2002-10-23 15:19:23
Message Id:  3329
Mer
Heidi
Will
Diana
Chelsea

Our base heart rates are as followes:

MS- 98 (just came from badminton)
HAM- 72
WSSC- 72
DGL- 84 (fasting for last two days)
CLP- 78 (drank coke)

Exercise:

MS- 146
HAM- 102
WSSC- 128
DGL- 178
CLP- 152

Hypothesis: Caffine will increase heart rate, as it is a stimulant.
Caffine:

MS- control 101

HAM- 76 (weaker beats)
WSSC- 82 (stronger beats)
DGL- 96
CLP- 92 (stronger beats)

Massage:

MS- 88

Thinking happy thoughts:

CLP: 88 (after coffee)

Laughing:

CLP: 128 (after coffee)

In conclusion, we feel that caffine increases heart rates, massage decreases, and so does thinking happy thoughts. Laughing we feel was affected by the movement of the hands as well.

THE END. yummy cooooooffeeeeeeeeeeeee:)

Name:  see below, joe.
Subject:  Hot damn. Pump it up, yo.
Date:  2002-10-23 15:20:39
Message Id:  3330
This lab has been a production of the aortas of:
Lauren "HTML this, hizzo!" Friedman, Jodie "I'm... healthy?" Ferguson, Carrie "Bring On da Drizzugs" Griffin, Lawral "Don't Mess With Me" Wornek

Heartbeat.
booooom.
 Name Resting Vigorous Exercise Cigarette Coffee Cigarette + Coffee Cigarette + Stairs Lauren 86 150 92 -- -- -- Jodie 72 160 -- 84 -- -- Carrie 84 130 -- -- 86 -- Lawral 90 126 -- -- -- 108

(1) Everyone has a different resting heart rate (RHR). There are a number of factors in what determines each person's RHR, so this makes sense. These factors include but are not limited to: fitness level, smoker/non-smoker, and genetic predisposition. (Noting the variation in the chart above, Jodie's low RHR may be attributed to the fact that she plays rugby, and Lawral's ridiculously [and possibly unhealthy] high RHR may be attributed to the fact that she is a smoker.)

(2) When a person exercises, their heartbeat goes up to provide more oxygen to the body.

(3) Different factors for our final test altered our heart rates in varying ways. We expected all of our heart rates to go up in varying increments, which they did.
Name:
Subject:  Caffeine, Massage, Nicotine
Date:  2002-10-23 15:23:46
Message Id:  3331
Erin Myers
Michelle Doughty
Diana DiMuro
Brie Farley

Resting Rates
Erin: 80bpm
Michelle: 80bpm
Diana: 82bpm
Brie: 82bpm

Post-Exercise (2 min. vigorous stair-running)
Erin: 128bpm
Michelle: 146bpm
Diana: 132bpm
Brie: 124bpm

Relaxation Techniques

Sleeping

Michelle: 66bpm
Diana: 88bpm (recently exercised, medication)

Massage

Erin:
pre-massage: 102bpm (recently exercised)
Brie:
pre-massage: 94bpm (recently exercised)

Erin:
post-massage: 92bpm
Brie:
post-massage: no change (new noise in room)

Exciting Techniques

Cigarette

Michelle:
pre-cigarette: 80bpm
post-cigarette: 78bpm

Coffee

Erin:
pre-coffee: 86bpm
post-coffee: 88bpm (immediately after consumption)

CONCLUSIONS!

Context in environment has strongly affected our results. (noise in room, etc.) For the most part, relaxation techniques of sleep and massage lowered bpm, exercise raised bpm, and coffee and nicotine had trivial results.

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