## Energy at the Human Level

Heart beat rate and amplitude and respiration rate and amplitude were taken as measures of energy transformation. Using these measures, students worked in groups to explore and compare the extent of energy transformations during different human activities.

Jill McCain and Alexis Hilts

Our hypothesis was that heart rate and breathing pattern are related to amount of energy being spent. We measured resting heart rate, heart pressure, breathing rate and breathing volume and we took the same measurements for after jogging.

We found that all four measurements increased with work. Breathing rate, though, was affected less than heart rate was.

For the first experiment, the resting heart rate was 15 beats per 10 seconds. The working heart rate was 21 beats in 10 seconds. The heart pressure went from an average of .0216 volts to .1454 volts. The breathing rate went from 6 breaths in 30 seconds to 8 breaths in the same amount of time. The breathing volume went from 0.15 liters to 0.24 liters.

For the second experiment, we were only able to test breathing rates and volume due to equipment complications. The breathing rate went from 6 breaths in 30 seconds to 10 breaths in 30 seconds. The breathing volume went from 0.17 liters to 0.61 liters.

For the third experiment we again only measured breathing rate and volume. For this experiment, we went outside and rested in order to evaluate the effects of fresh air on expenditure of energy. The breathing rate went from 6 in 30 seconds to 8 in the same time. The breathing volume went from 0.17 liters to 0.19 liters. This could have also been affected by the energy spent walking form outside to inside.

Respiration and Pulse Lab:

Hypothesis: heart rate and breathing patterns are directly related to energy expenditure. Therefore, we compared pulse amplitude, and respiration amplitude. We used resting rates for each as our control, and different levels of exercise intensity. We think, that with increase in energy expenditure, there is an increase in the heart rate and the respiration rate.

Observations/Conclusions:

We found that after doing these experiments, our observations support our hypothesis. As we increased our level of exercise, our heart rates (pulse) and respiratory rates increased.

Susy Jones and Katie Gallagher

The Question: How is energy expenditure related to heart and lung functions?

Hypothesis: Heart rate and pressure, as well as breathing patterns, are directly related to energy expenditure.

Observations:

We measured Susy at rest. Her heart rate was 74 beats/minute and pumped an average of 0.209 L/beat. She breathed 12 times/minute and breathed an average of 0.136 L/breath. After one minute of exercise (running up & down the stairs), her heart rate was 98 beats/minute and pumped an average of 0.168 L/beat. She breathed 9 times/minute and breathed an average of 0.664 L/breath.

We measured Katie at rest. Her heart rate was 104 beats/minute and pumped an average of 0.400 L/beat. She breathed 12 times/minute and breathed an average of 0.105 L/breath. After one minute of exercise (running up & down the stairs), her heart rate was 150 beats/minute and pumped an average of 0.418 L/beat. She breathed 20 times/minute and breathed an average of 0.336 L/breath.

Conclusions:

Our observations indicate that heart and breathing rates increase with energy expenditure. The breathing volume also increases. However, the volume of blood pumped by Susy's heart per beat went down, while the volume of blood pumped by Katie's heart per beat stayed about the same, so we are unable to draw any conclusions about this aspect at this time. In general, our data indicates that there is a correlation between heart and lung function and energy expenditure.

Katie Kaczmarek and Rachel Hochberg

Our hypothesis was that thinking expends energy that can be observed as changes in breathing and heart rate. To test this, we tested the sterotypical reactions of thinking of one's love interest (i.e. heart pounding, lightheaded due to shallow breathing). We took control measurements of breathing an average of .155L with a rate of 12 breaths per minute. Her heart rate was 66 beats per minute and the volume was on average .1239V. When she thought about her love interest, her breathing was .332L with a rate of 18 breaths per minute, while her heart rate was 66 beats per minute with an average volume of .175V. Because the breathing changed in volume and rate and the volume of blood changed, we found that energy is expended.

Jessica Hayes-Conroy, Allison Hayes-Conroy, and Jeanne Braha

Jeff asked us what we thought would happen in our bodies when we expend energy by increasing our activity level. We hypothesized that the rate and amplitude of our heart beat and respiration would go up as we expended more energy.

In order to test this, we took measurements of our heart beat and respiration during three different periods of activity: at rest, after walking up and down two flights of stairs, and after running up and down two flights of stairs. Then we used the software superscope to find the rates and amplitudes.

 Pulse rate Pule Amp. Respiration rate Resp. Amp. Allison at rest 68 bpm .063 volts 12 breaths .38 L Walking 63 .022 12 .57 Running 112 .031 16 .74 Jess at rest 72 .047 12 .67 Walking 86 .031 12 .33 Running 120 .063 14 .53

Our data did not consistently support our hypothesis. Jessica's heart rate increased as her activity level increased, as did Allison's respiration amplitude. All the other data went back and forth. This could be due to a number of different sources of error. The equipment is incredibly sensitive and we had trouble holding our hands still to take an accurate pulse. Also, as Jeff mentioned, watching the pulse and breathing data unfold on the screen can effect the results. It is impossible to breathe "naturally" when you are breathing through a tube and are conscious of trying to breathe normally.

Clare Lindner, Sarah Naimzadeh, and Naomi Lim

Question:

How does our body react to change in energy expenditure? More specifically, how does heart rate and respiration rate change?

Hypothesis:

Heart rate, respiration, heart beat amplitude, and respiration amplitude will all increase as activity level or energy expenditure increases.

Results:

Resting

 Heart Rate Heart Beat Amplitude Respiration Rate Respiration Amplitude Naomi ------------------- .02 volts 15 breaths/min .0367 liters Claire ------------------- .0012 volts 20 breaths/min .0286 liters

Walking

 Heart Rate Heart Beat Amplitude Respiration Rate Respiration Amplitude Naomi ------------------- .034 volts 23 breaths/min .0482 liters Claire ------------------- .029 volts 28 breaths/min .0556liters

Running

 Heart Rate Heart Beat Amplitude Respiration Rate Respiration Amplitude Naomi ------------------- .054 volts 33 breaths/min .0487 liters Claire ------------------- .056 volts 35 breaths/min .0562 liters

Conclusion:

Our results agreed with our hypothesis. Our three activities were resting (the control), walking up and down stairs, and running up and down stairs. As we increased our energy expenditure, our heart beat amplitude, respiration rate and respiration amplitude all increased. However, we were unable to effectively measure our heart rate because the measurements were too close together.

Promise Partner and Mary Rochelle

Hypothesis:

That all of the 4 categories would go up in proportion to the amount of energy expended.

Conclusions:

As far as the heart rate, the measurements support the hypothesis and the rate increased proportionally with the amount of energy expended. Both respiration rates stayed pretty constant with only a slight increase after the third, most strenuous exercise. Promise's heart amplitude went down from her at rest rate, but was close to the at rest rate after the third, most strenuous exercise. Mary's heart amplitude went down from her at rest rate after the first exercise, but doubled her at rest rate after the third, most strenuous exercise. Promise's respiration amplitude went down from her at rest measurement, and stayed nearly constant for both exercises. Mary's respiration rate went up drastically after the second exercise and then went down after the third, most strenuous exercise [but was still double her at rest measurement].

We must take into account the fact that Promise and Mary are two different people with different bodies. Promise was wearing sandals and only did jumping jacks [50, 100] while Mary was wearing tennis shoes and so she did running [jog, sprint]. Mary is a smoker as well.

Jennifer Wilson, Meghan McCabe, Nimia Barrera, Trudell Smith

Question:

What happens to the following parameters when one expends energy: heart rate, respiration, heart beat amplitude and respiration amplitude?

Hypothesis:

All four parameters will increase with the expenditure of energy.

Results:

Conclusion:

Based on this experiment, it is hard to conclude because of inconsistent data and faulty equipment. Only one case supported our hypothesis, Jenny's.

Jabeen Obaray, Julie Kwon, and Srabonti Ali

Question: How will increased expenditure of energy (increase in activity) affect respiration rate, heart rate, heart beat amplitude and respiration amplitude?

Hypothesis: All parameters will increase with the increase in activity.

Results:

Subject one

 Activity Heart Rate (beats/min) Heart Amplitude (average in volts) Respiration Rate (beats/min) Respiration Amplitude In volts (in Liters) Rest 64 0.0058 16 0.004 (0.02) Walking 78 0.0052 20 0.016 (0.07) Jumping Jacks 102 0.007 18 0.051 (0.22)

Subject Two

 Activity Heart Rate (beats/min) Heart Amplitude (average in volts) Respiration Rate (beats/min) Respiration Amplitude In volts (in Liters) Rest 90 0.036 20 0.031 (0.13) Walking 100 0.025 28 0.044 (0.19) Jumping Jacks 124 0.016 42 0.127 (0.55)

Conclusion

In conclusion as you increase the level of activity or use more energy the heart rate increased in both subjects. Respiration amplitude also increased in both subjects. In subject one the respiration rate was not consistent, furthermore the heart amplitude was also inconsistent in subject one. In subject two the respiration rate increased and the Heart amplitude decreased. Our hypothesis was correct for both heart rate and respiration amplitude however our results did not show that heart amplitude and respiration rate increased as increase in activity.

Debbie Plotnik, Jakki Rowlett, Joe Santini, and Leila Ghaznavi

Experiment to measure expenditure of energy:

Experiment 1: Lively Jakki

1. Jakki at Rest

 Heart Beat Respiration Breaths/Beats per minute 82 10 Voltage (average) 0.060 0.236

2. Jakki’s the Stairmaster Exercise

 Heart Beat Respiration Breaths/Beats per minute 158 18 Voltage (averaged from 5 samples) .2128 .1046

3. Jakki’s Little Jog

 Heartbeat Respiration Breaths/Beats per minute 152 24 Voltage (Averaged from 5 Samples) .1098 .242

Experiment 2: Sleepy Joe

1. Joe at Rest

 Heartbeat Respiration Breaths/Beats per minute 84 14 Voltage (Averaged) .0654 .125