Motor Equivalence

This bibliography was created to help guide people in understanding the problem of motor equivalence. The term motor equivalence(or intrinsic variability[Grobstein]) is a phenomena where a single organism will react differently to the exact same stimulus. We are looking at predator instincts in frogs in our lab and this is seen when frogs will jump forward, to the left, or to the right of a stimulus located in the same position every time(go here for more information on frog research). Below are listings of articles that are being looked into for their use in explaining motor equivalence. Please write me if you have any input on these articles or have others that you think should be included.

Useful Articles

  1. Flash, T.; Hogan, K.N.(1985) The coordinate of arm movements: An experimentally confirmed mathematical model. Journal of Neuroscience, Vol.5, pp.1688-1703(2)
  2. Hull, C.L.(1934) The concept of the habitat-family hierarchy and maze learning. Psychological Review, Vol.41, (I)pp.33-54, (II)pp.134-152
  3. Lashley, K.S.(1930) Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychological Review Vol.37, pp.1-24

  4. Stelmach, G.E.; Diggles, V.A.(1982) Control Theories in Motor Behavior. Acta Psychologica, Vol.50, No.1, pp.83-105(1)

Articles In The Process Of Being Reviewed

Articles That May Be Useful, But Are Difficult To Attain


  1. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts(

  2. Abbs J.H.; Cole K.J.(1987) Neural Mechanisms of Motor Equivalence and Goal Achievment

  3. Stelmach, G.E.; Diggles, V.A.(1982) Control Theories in Motor Behavior

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This page was last updated on June 18th, 1998
and is maintained by Zach Hettinger.