I'am a bit confused about the discussion concerning the frog's ventral root and input/output. If the ventral root is severed and irritating stimulus is placed on the limb, then another limb will wipe off the stimulus. Then, this demonstrates that the ventral root is output and not input. Does this mean that the stimulus is received by the entire frog, but only the severed limb cannot respond to it? This leads to a question about the person with the broken neck. Does pain exist if a person cannot feel it? I'am sure the spinal chord would say "yes", if it could respond, if the person's toe was pinched. So, a person's body can receive a stimulus or feel pain(at least their spinal cord) without their sensing it because the connection between the lower and upper part of the body has been severed?

Also, in the discussion about the filament and the neuron, if there is constant voltage moving longitudinal external battery and a constant transverse battery, does that mean one part of the neuron is constantly in touch with the muscle(the internal constant battery), while it is awaiting outside stimulus(which accounts for the moving voltage)? It also paradoxical to say that the information that the neuron collects has no substance or energy to it. Aren't the resting and action potentials information that the neuron is receiving or transmitting? Hasn't the information we received, of say a pinch to our toe, been a result of neurotransmitters and chemical or electrical interactions in our body?

Actually means that input can get into the nervous system from the limb without the ventral root (need some additional observations to say that the ventral root carries output to the limb). Yes, limb can't respond to input (because ventral root cut, and therefore motoneurons can't affect muscles). Yes, obviously input can get to other places in nervous system (including those containing motoneurons for moving other limbf). Yes, upper part of nervous system (with motoneurons for saying ouch) can't get signals about toe pinch. Does spinal chord feel pain? Don't know (as discussed in class). A subject to return to.

Will talk much more about batteries (potentials). Depend on matter/energy (of course) but don't move either. No, constant transverse battery doesn't affect muscle (is only across neuronal membrane, will talk more about this). PG